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Вопрос пользователя FAA has no timetable for when Boeing's 737 Max will fly again

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id="article-body" class="row" section="article-body"> After two deadly crashes of its 737 Max 8 that killed 346 people, Boeing is facing massive scrutiny over one of its newest and most critical aircraft models. The airliner remains grounded around the world, and Congress, the FBI and the Trump administration have called for an inquiry into the FAA's certification process.<br> <br> <br> <br> The developments are a huge blow to Boeing, which has thousands of 737 Max orders on its books. The official causes of the crashes, which appear to be similar, are still under study. But so far, investigation teams in Indonesia and Ethiopia are focusing on faulty sensors and a flight control system designed to push the nose down in the air. Boeing says it has completed the necessary update for review by the FAA. But as of now, the agency has not said when that will happen. Until then, here's everything else we know:<br> <br> <br> <br> What happened in the most recent crash?<br> <br> <br> <br> On March 10, Ethiopian Airlines flight 302 departed Addis Ababa Bole International Airport bound for Nairobi, Kenya. Just after takeoff, the pilot radioed a distress call and was given immediate clearance to return and land. But before the crew could make it back, the aircraft crashed 40 miles from the airport at 8:44 a.m., six minutes after it left the runway. Aboard were 149 passengers and eight crew members representing more than 30 nationalities. The aircraft involved was only four months old. <br> <br> <br> <br> What was the previous crash?<br> <br> On Oct. 29, Lion Air flight 610 crashed in the Java Sea 13 minutes after takeoff from Jakarta, Indonesia, killing 189 people. As with the Ethiopian crash, the flight crew lost control early in its flight and made a distress call. That aircraft was almost brand-new as well, having arrived at Lion Air three months earlier. <br> <br> <br> <br> The 737 Max 9, shown here at the 2016 Paris Air Show, is a larger version of the Max 8, but with the same piloting system that's under investigation.<br> <br> <br> <br> Kent German/CNET What is the Boeing 737 Max 8?<br> <br> <br> <br> One of Boeing's newest airliners, the 737 Max 8 made its first flight on Jan. 29, 2016, and entered passenger service with Malaysia's (now defunct) Malindo Air on May 22, 2017. Seating between 162 and 210 passengers, depending on the configuration, it's popular on shorter routes, but also has the range (3,550 nautical miles or about 4,085 miles) to fly transatlantic and between the mainland US and Hawaii. <br> <br> <br> <br> The design of the Max 8 is based on the Boeing 737, an aircraft series that has been in service since 1968. As a whole, the 737 family is the best-selling airliner in history. At any given time, thousands of some version of it are airborne around the world and some airlines, like Southwest and Ryanair, have all-737 fleets. If you've flown even occasionally, you've most likely flown on a 737.<br> <br> <br> <br> How the first 737 evolved into the Max<br> <br> <br> <br> Boeing 737: Much more than just the Max<br> <br> What's different about the Max 8?<br> <br> Compared with previous 737 versions, the Max 8 has bigger, more powerful and more efficient CFM LEAP engines (more on those in a minute), improved aerodynamics and a redesigned cabin interior. It also can fly farther and carry more people than the previous generation of 737s, like the 737-800 and 737-900. <br> <br> <br> <br> The 737 Max series consists of four models, of which the Max 8 is the most popular. The larger Max 9 has been flying only for a few months and the 737-10 is still in development and has yet to fly. A few airlines have ordered the smaller 737 Max 7, but Boeing has yet to complete any deliveries. (It flew for the first time in May, 2018.)<br> <br> <br> <br> Compared with previous versions of the 737, the Max's engines sit farther forward and higher up on the underwing pylons.<br> <br> <br> <br> Andrew Hoyle/CNET What caused the crashes?<br> <br> <br> <br> The complete reports haven't been published yet. Crash investigations are tremendously complex -- it takes months to evaluate the evidence and determine a probable cause. Investigators must examine the debris, study the flight recorders and, if possible, check the victims' bodies to determine the cause of death. They also involve multiple parties including the airline, the airplane and engine manufacturers and aviation regulatory agencies.<br> <br> <br> <br> There are important clues so far. Remember those larger CFM LEAP engines? Well, because they're bigger, and because the 737 sits so low to the ground (a deliberate design choice to let it serve small airports with limited ground equipment), Boeing moved the engines slightly forward and raised them higher under the wing. (If you place an engine too close to the ground, it can suck in debris while the plane is taxiing.) That change allowed Boeing to accommodate the engines without completely redesigning the 737 fuselage -- a fuselage that hasn't changed much in 50 years.<br> <br> <br> <br> But the new position changed how the aircraft handled in the air, creating the potential for the nose to pitch up during flight. A pitched nose is a problem in flight -- raise it too high and an aircraft can stall. To keep the nose in trim, Boeing designed software called the Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System, or MCAS. When a sensor on the fuselage detects that the nose is too high, MCAS automatically pushes the nose down.<br> <br> <br> <br> Of the four 747 Max versions, only the Max 10 has yet to fly.<br> <br> <br> <br> Boeing Investigators in the Lion Air crash have said that a fault in the sensor may have been feeding incorrect data to MCAS, pitching the nose down into a dive. According to the preliminary report (PDF) from the Indonesian National Transportation Safety Committee, the Lion Air pilots were unable to determine their true airspeed and altitude and they struggled to take control of the plane before the crash, as it oscillated for 메이저사이트 - https://www.tototcasino-114.com/ 10 minutes. Each time they pulled up from a dive, the system pushed the nose down again. (For background on MCAS, read these in-depth stories from The Air Current and The Seattle Times<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> The report also noted that maintenance crews had replaced the faulty sensor two days before the flight and that pilots on the four flights preceding the crash reported incorrect airspeed and altitude information (a passenger likened one of those flights to a "roller coaster ride"). And like with the Lion Air crash, the sensor on the Ethiopian plane may have been damaged causing it to feed erroneous data to the MCAS sys<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> On April 29, during Boeing's annual shareholders meeting in Chicago, CEO Dennis Muilenburg said the incorrect data was a common link in a chain of events that led to both crashes. It's a link Boeing owns, he said, and one that the software update will <br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> The original version of the 737 first flew in 1<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> Boeing Would the pilots have known about the fau<br> <br> <br> The Air Current and The New York Times reported that the Lion Air plane also lacked a warning light designed to alert pilots to the faulty sensor and that Boeing sold the light as part of an optional package of equipment. When asked about the warning light, a Boeing spokesman gave CNET the following statement on March<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> "All Boeing airplanes are certified and delivered to the highest levels of safety consistent with industry standards. Airplanes are delivered with a baseline configuration, which includes a standard set of flight deck displays and alerts, crew procedures and training materials that meet industry safety norms and most customer requirements. Customers may choose additional options, such as alerts and indications, to customize their airplanes to support their individual operations or requiremen<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> But on April 29, The Wall Street Journal reported that even for airlines that had ordered it, the warning light wasn't operating on some Max planes that had been delivered. Then on June 7, Reps. Peter DeFazio, a Democrat from Oregon, and Rick Larsen, a Democrat from Washington, said they'd obtained information suggesting that even though the plane maker knew the safety alert wasn't working, it decided to wait until 2020 to implement a fi<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> Boeing responded to DeFazio and Larsen in a statement sent to CNET the same <br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> "The absence of the AOA Disagree alert did not adversely impact airplane safety or operation," the statement read. "Based on the safety review, the update was scheduled for the MAX 10 rollout in 2020. We fell short in the implementation of the AoA Disagree alert and are taking steps to address these issues so they do not occur aga<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> The previous model, the 737-900ER, doesn't have the MCAS flight control sys<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> Boeing/Ed Turner Are the two crashes rela<br> <br> <br> It appears they are. Investigators in France are still examining the flight recorder (the "black box") from the second crash, but Ethiopia's Transport Minister said on March 18 that two crashes have "clear similarities." Though he didn't elaborate, satellite data released March 14 showed that the final flight track of the Ethiopian Airlines jet was similar to that of the Lion Air plane. The FAA cited that data in its grounding or<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> Investigators at both crash sites have also recovered the jack screws, which manipulate the control surfaces on the horizontal stabilizer that pitch the nose up and down. Both jack screws were set to send the planes into a d<br> <br> <b<br> <br> <br> Do we know anything else about the Ethiopian cr<br> <br> <br> According to the preliminary report released on April 4, the flight crew initially followed Boeing's emergency procedures to disable MCAS by cutting electrical power. For unknown reasons, though, they later turned the system back on as many as four times after they were unable to regain control under manual power. During his remarks at the April 29 shareholder meeting, Muilenburg - http://www.blogher.com/search/apachesolr_search/Muilenburg said that in some cases pilots did not "completely" follow the procedures that Boeing had outlined to prevent a crash in the case of an MCAS malfunction.